Francisco Pizarro


1. Who was Francisco Pizarro?

5ff[1].gifrancisco Pizarro González Marqués was a Spanish conquitador. Conqueror of the Inca Empire, and founder of Lima, currently the capital of Peru. He was born in Extremadura, Spain, on the year 1471 and he died on the year 1541 on Lima. When he was young he participated on local wars between lords in which he fight with his father in Italy. Francisco was the second cousin of Hernan Cortés.

2. Erly Life of Francisco Pizarro

5pp[1].gifizarro was llp3[1].gifborn on Trujillo, currently Extremadura, Spain. He was son of Gonzalo Pizarro Rodríguez de Aguilar, who was coronel of infantery of the Italian Calmings. His mother was Francisca González Mateos, a woman of slender means from Trujillo, daughter of Juan Mateos, of the family called Los Roperos, and wife María Alonso, labradores pecheros from Trujillo. His mother married late in life and had a son Francisco Martín de Alcántara, married to Inés Muñoz, who from the beginning was at the conquest of Peru, where he then lived, always at his brother's side, who held him always as one of his most trusted men.Through his father, Francisco was second cousin once removed to Hernan Cortes, the famed conquistador of the Aztec Empire.

3. Explorations

5pp[1].gifizarro was a great explorer. He made explorations to: Panama, Mexico, Ecuador and Colombia. On one expedition, Pascual de Andagoya found a gold-rich territory called Virú (El Dorado) that was on a river called Pirú. Andagoya eventually established contact with some Native Americans chiefs. Andagoya continue his travelled but when he was between Ecuator and Colombia he fell very ill so he decided to return back to Panama, he started to spread the news about `Pirú´ (the legendary Dorado). These revelations caught the attention of Francisco Pizarro, so he put more interes on the expedition to the South, years later he foun the Inca Empire.

4. First expedition (1524)

carabela[1].gif5oo[1].gifn 13 September 1524, the first of the three expeditions to Panama for the conquest of Peru with about 80 men and 40 horses. Diego de Almagrowas left behind because he was to recruit men, gather additional supplies, and join Pizarro later. The Governor of Panama, Pedro Arias Dávila, at first approved in principle of exploring South America. Pizarro's first expedition, however, turned out to be a failure as his conquistadors, sailing down the Pacific coast, reached no farther than Colombia before succumbing to Art006_Francisco_Pizarro[1].pngsuch hardships as bad weather, lack of food, and villages with hostile natives, one of which caused Almagro to lose an eye. Moreover, the place names the Spanish bestowed along their route, including Puerto deseado, Puerto del hambre, and Puerto quemado, only confirm their straits. Fearing subsequent hostile encounters like the one the expedition endured at the Battle of Punta Quemada, Pizarro chose to end his tentative first expedition and return to Panama.

5. Second expedition (1526)

5tt[1].gifwo years after the first and very unsuccessful expedition, Pizarro, Almagro, and Luque 60[1].gifstarted the arrangements for a second expedition with permission from Pedrarias Dávila. The Governor, who himself was preparing an expedition north to Nicaragua. Also by this time, a new governor was to arrive and succeed Pedrarias Dávila. This was Pedro de los Ríos, who took charge of the post in July of 1526 and had manifested his initial approval of Pizarro's expeditions, he would later join him several years later in Peru.

In August 1526, after all preparations were ready, Pizarro left Panama with two ships with 160 men and several horses, reaching as far as the Colombian San Juan River. Soon after arriving the party separated, with Pizarro staying to explore the new and often perilous territory off the swampy Colombian coasts, while the expedition's second-in-command, Almagro, was sent back to Panama for reinforcements.
Some time later Pizarro a very large native population recently brought under Inca rule. Unfortunately for the conquistadors, the warlike spirit of the people they had just encountered seemed so defiant and dangerous in numbers that the Castilians decided not to enter the land.

6. The Conquest of Peru

5oo[1].gifn the year 1531 in Peru, take place the death of the Inca Empire, Huayna Cápac. A civil war broke out between its successors, Atahualpa and his brother, the Sapa Inca, (name given to the real successor) Huascar. Francisco Pizarro was invited by Athahualpa for meet him in Cajamarca. This message was send throught a known person for Pizarro. They met the messenger, the messenger give to Pizarro some presents and he said to Pizarro and his soldiers that they had to continue his travel to the valley Chancay. Pizarro enter in the Inca´s territory with 168 soldiers and 37 horses. When he arrived to Cajamarca he took Athahualpa as prisioner, but Pizarro forzed 3Espana_Castilla_Leon-es-castile-and-leon-flag1s[1].gifAthahualpa to pay for his crimes, Pizarro didn´t burn Athahualpa.
Pizarro manteined the straight relationship with the noblemens of Cuzco, that followed Huascar, so he could finished the conquering of Peru. Some time later Pizarro named a Athahualpa´s brother as emperor Pizarro travelled to Cuzco and conquering it on the year 1533. His brother Juan was named ruler of the city. Juan get married with the son of the Inca´s emperor Huayna Capac. After a time Francisco Pizarro ordered to killed Athahualpa. On the year 1535 Pizarro founded the cities of Lima and Trujillo. Some time later Pizarro recived a lot of territory from the crown of Castile.

7. Pizarro´s death

Pizarro´s coffin on the Lima´s cathedral.
Pizarro´s coffin on the Lima´s cathedral.

5ii[1].gifn Lima, Peru on 26 June 1541 a group of twenty heavily armed supporters of Diego Almagro II attacked Pizarro's palace, assassinated him, and then forced the terrified city council to named Almagro as the new governor of Peru. Diego de Almagro, the younger was caught and killed the following year after losing the battle of Chupas. Pizarro's remains were briefly buried in the cathedral courtyard; at some time later his head and body were separated and buried in separate boxes in the floor of the cathedral.