This page has been created by Irene Palomo, Ana Merino, Natalia Torrens, Malena López and Victor Pérez de Arenaza Pozo.

New wiki: http://circumnavigationoftheworld.wikispaces.com/



Circumnavigation of the World :

Editing Page: Malena López.
Power Point Presentations: Natalia Torrens.
Glog: Ana Merino.
Maps: Irene Palomo.


The people thought that the Earth was similar to this pictures :


external image 220px-Toscanelli_map.jpg external image 220px-Atlantic_Ocean%2C_Toscanelli%2C_1474.jpg

1.Who supported the expeditions


The Crown of Castile was the one that supported the expedition of the circumnavigation. Magellan, as Christopher Columbus, who died some years ago, asked for support to the Portuguese Monarchs, but they refused. Then he went to ask for support to the Spanish Monarchs, who inmediately accepted to support the expeditions.

Ferdinand Magellan changed his nationality into Spanish nationality and he asked for these to the King Charles I because the Kingdom of Portugal did not want to support the expedition. The 28 of March, 1518, the capitulations (surrenders) where signed and agreed.

Charles I of Spain ( Crown of Castile ) and V of Germany was the son of Joanna the Mad ( daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon ) and Philip the Handsome (son of Maximilian of Hapsburg and Mary of Burgundy) . He married to Elizabeth of Abis and he was the grandson of the Catholic Monarchs ( Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon ).

CharlesVtit.jpg
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Herencia del Emperador Carlos V, Carlos I como Rey de España.svg
Herencia del Emperador Carlos V, Carlos I como Rey de España.svg




2.Objectives of the Expedition


Ferdinand Magellan was convinced that the world was round and that he could reach the Moluccas by croosing a passage that conected America's waters and India's waters ( Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean ) .

Ferdinand thought that the passage that connected both oceans was the Plata River . The aim of the expedition was to find a passage that connected both Oceans and so they had a faster an safer Sea Route to trade with the Spices Land. This was because they needed spices to cook and because most of the trade route with the Spices Land ( alos called Maluku Islands or Moluccas ) were owned by the Portuguese.

The objective of reaching a passage between both oceans (which was the main objective) was proved. However, it wasn't the Plata River, it was The Strait of Magellan, which they found after searching for a passage in the Plata River but then they continued sailing south along the Coast of South America and they found it.


3. Ferdinand Magellan


He was an portuguese explorer, but he changed his nacionality into Spanish nacionality. He that tried to circumnavegated the world but he died during the voyage. However, he made a great discovery beacuse he and his expedition discovered the Strait of Magellan.




4.Juan Sebastian Elcano


Here is a video that explains the circumnavegation of the world with Juan Sebastian el cano.


Biografy:
Juan Sebastián Elcano, (Guetaria, Guipúzcoa, Spain, 1476 - Pacific Ocean, on August 4, 1526), was a Spanish who participated in the first round the world, being at the head of the expedition after the death of Ferdinand Magellan.
After the death of Magellan in the Philippines in 1521, during a skirmish with the natives, Elcano took command. He had the problem of return to Spain with the remainder of the expedition, without knowing the way back across the Pacific, and seemed crazy to try it, so he chose to browse the Portuguese seas to the West, skirting Africa known routes and with possibilities of aguadas.
He managed to accomplish the expedition, arriving to Sanlúcar de Barrameda on September 6, 1522 in the nao Victoria, along with other surviving 17. This was the achievement of an impressive feat: the first circumnavigation of the Earth.
King Charles I of Spain granted, shield, an area in the world with the inscription in Latin: Primus circumdedisti me ("the first who turned me around").
He died on August 4, 1526 on Board of the nao (carrack)Victoria when he participated in the expedition of García Jofre of Loaisa to the Moluccas.
He was the son of Mrs. Catalina of the Port and Mr. Juan Domingo Elcano.

5.Preparations for the expeditions


5.1Their Project


In October 1517, in Seville,Ferdinand Magellan contacted Juan de Aranda and Rui faleiro. Then they presented their project to the King Charles I of Spain and V of Germany.Magelan's project to open the sea route was interesting and so the King Charles I named him and Faleiro captains so that thry could captain the boats in the expedition

6.The trip


6.1 How did they get back?

It was difficult for them to get back because they had many problems with the weather and they lost their boats and many people died due to scurvy and the rest were made prisioners

6.2 What happened to the Victoria and its crew?

The boat Victoria sailed with 47 men but the weather such as the storms and the problems with the caro oblied the crew to stop in Portuguese waters and then return to Seville, where they told the consequences and adventures of the voyage to King Carhles I.

6.3 Problems and adventures during the explorations

They had great problems with the cargo because there was not enough food and many members of the crew died due to this and alos because of scurvy. They had to stop in land where some men were made prisioners and were some ships were lost. The weather affected the expedition because the boats were damaged in storms. Also the expedition tried to conquist new lands but failed.

6.4 Oceans

During the voyage they went through diferent oceans : Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean. In their waters they found shelter sometimes and storms more frecuently than shelter. They also discovered new territories and they got spices.

7.Consequences of the exploration and trips


Age of Exploration: Conclusion
The exploration lasted · years, from 1519 to 1522. during these yeras the world was completely sorrounded, which made the people think and bring their conclusions to an end. They got several conclusions:

  • Conclusion of the Earth's shape:

When Elcano was back from his explorations with 18 men ( unfortunately Ferdinand Magellan died in the Philippines) and only one ship, the Victoria was left, he had proved that the Earth was round because he sailed west from the Crown of Castile and sailing west all the time ,he had reached it again.This had a great impact in the world because it meant that they woudn't fall down when they reached the edges of the world and made it easier to travel because thye could just circumnavigate part of the world instead of sailing for months using a very long route.
external image 220px-Toscanelli_map.jpg

Some people like Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli had studied and researched and they
believed tha the Earth was round and they didn't know about the existence of America
but they thought that they could reach Cipango (Japan) if they sailed west from Europe.

  • Cartographic and calculation changes:

The maps and routes were changed due to this new discovery. New routes were found and they were safer and faster. Cartographers (cartography) drew many new maps and the teories about the Earth's shape were clear.
Now the people knew that they wouldn' fall down the edges of the world.

  • Treaty of Tordesilas:

The Treaty of Tordesillas was changed so that not all the new territories belongedexternal image 200px-Spain_and_Portugal.png
to the Kingdom of Portugal because then, it was proved that the world was round. Some territories were then annexed to the Kingdom of Portugal and some others to the Crown of Castile.This was because they proved taht the Earth was round and has the expedition sailed west, all the territories should be for the Kingdom of Portugal. In order to avoid this situation the Treaty of Tordesillas was changed because the highly valued Moluccas which were located in what was supposed to be Portuguese territory.


external image 220px-Karta_ID_Maluku_isl.PNG
  • Treaty of Zaragoza:
Now that they knew that the world was round there was a new problem , which was
supposed to be finished with the Treaty of Tordesillas, in the year 1494. The territories
had to be annexed again and so the Moluccas were sold from "Spain " to the Portuguese,
who payed 350,000 ducats to the Spanish. This was the Treaty of Zaragoza.



  • Strait of Magellan:

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ-wxllzDU2bhtK7uQOdHCdx92Q6c9wqtu7T_s1cnqgk0fePlX0

Ferdinand Magellan thought that the Plata River was the strait that connected
the Atlantic Ocean with the Indian Ocean. In January of the year 1520 they began to explore the stuary of the Plata River until they saw that it was not the passage they were looking for. This caused troubles to the expedition because some of their calculations were completely wrong. In October, 1520, they reached a strait -later called the Strait of Magellan,because he leaded the expedition- which was the Strait connnectiong both oceans.