This page has been created by Sara Pérez , Jessica Pinilla , Sheila Pinto and Paloma Valverde .

People responsible for:

Editing the page: Sara Pérez
Maps: Sheila Pinto
Glogster: Jessica Pinilla
Presentations: Paloma Valverde

1. Animals.




The animals in america were very primitive . The Spanish and the Europeans , took useful animals to America , as the horses , the donkeys and other cattle like the Castilian cows , the oxen , the sheeps and animals of farm like the porks , the hens / roosters , the rabbtis ...
As America has got great natural conditions and it has got great pastures , the animals developed quite well .

2. Animals moved from Europe to America:


The introduction of European animals to America developed quite well. The American´s could use horses to rode into horseback in times of war, they also could obtain milk and wood from sheeps and cows, they could also obtain a lot of food and meat from pigs. All of this caused many changes in the American´s population.



The horse . ( Equus ferus caballus ) . I'ts a herbivore mammal with a long , curve neck . The female is called mare and their babies are called colt , if it is male , and if it is female , is called young mare .
They are may types of horses so , depending on the type of horse , and if it is a male or a females , they can be from 142 to 183 cm high , counting with the neck and head , and they can weight from 500 to 1000 kg .
People use horses mainly to ride on their back .

external image caballo-blanco.jpg
external image caballo-blanco.jpg


The Black Rat . ( Rattus rattus ) . It is a small rodent with almost 10 cm long , between the head and the body . It has a long tail of about 20 cm long . It normally weights between 200 and 250 gr .It is original from the asiatic southeast , and it came to Europe in hostorical times , and it has expanded to the rest of the world , after the discovery of America .It eats everything that it meets , even if it is an animal or a plant , but the foods they like most are the grains and the fruits . It is frecuence canivalism in this spiece .In the Middle Age the transmitted the " Black Death " among Europe . The epidemic finiched with the life of about 20 or 25 million persons , only in Europe .

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external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQsVId4h08Frt6GINSuUZarJwOg3CANNhGSTWtUcMJD0HxjFTRi











The donkey or ass, ( Equus africanus asinus ) .Is a domesticated member of the Equidae or horse family.
A mule is the offspring of a jack (male donkey) and a mare (female horse). The much rarer successful mating of a male horse and a female donkey produces a hinny.
For the Greeks, the donkey was associated with Dionysus, the god of wine. The Romans also valued the ass and would use it as a sacrifical animal .
Equines had become extinct in the Western Hemisphere at the end of the last Ice Age. However, horses and donkeys were brought back to the Americas by the Conqistadors. In 1495, the ass first appeared in the New World when Christopher Columbus brought four jacks and two jennys. It is from this bloodline that many of the mules which the Conquistdors used while they explored the Americas were produced. Shortly after the United States became independent, President George Washinton imported the first mammoth jack stock into the country.

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donkey.png


Sheep ( Ovis aries ) . Are ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock . Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, and has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, Australia , New Zeland , the southern and central South American nations, and the British Isles are most closely associated with sheep production.

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external image Ovejas.jpg


More Animals .

3. Animals discovered in America:


Pumas are found in all America except in Canadá and in the Patagonia. They are carnivore mammals that feed on all types of animals although their favourite prey is the deer. After spying his victim, the puma pounces on her and kills her. They have very huge fangs used to trap and kill their prey. They live in forests and mountanious regions. Pumas measure between 1 meter and 1,5 meters long and their tails measure between 60 cm and 85 cm long. Males weigh between 53 kg and 72 kg and females between 34 kg and 38 kg. Females are the only ones who care for the youngs, they use burrows or other places that offer protection for their young. In a litter, the female give birth from one to six babies. Baby pumas are blind when they born. The young pumas became independent at two years old.

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external image puma_concolocor.jpg


Spider monkeys are found tropical forest of Central and South America, from Southern Mexico to Brazil. They measure between 35 cm y 75 cm long and their tail form 60 cm and 90 cm long. Males weigh about 10,8 kg and females measure between weigh about 9,66 kg. They are characteristics of their long and thin body and a very long tail. They are omnivore mammals that feed on fruits, nuts, seeds, wood and sometimes insects and barks. These monkeys live in territorial groups from 6 to 30 induviduals per area of 90 or 250 ha. Gestation last from 226 to 232 days. When the baby monkeys are born they remain 4 years with their mother and then become independent. Spider monkeys could live aproximately 20 years.

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MONO_A~1.JPG


The toucans are originary from America and live in humid forests of Mexico, Central America, Colombia and Venezuela. They are climbing birds with very bright feathers and beak colors. They measurre up to 60 cm. Their beak is long, with very big teeths. Their tongue is very long (can measure about 14 cm) with narrow, flat and pointed ends. Thei have small, short and rounded wings. They use their beak as a weapon to take the fruits found on the tips of thin branches. They feed on fruits, insects and other small prey such as lizards, and chicks and eggs of other birds. Toucans are not migratory birds, tehy are often found in pairs or small flocks. Deforestation of rainforests, pollution, growth of urban areas and biopiracy are some of the reasons by which toucans are disappearing.

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The crotalus are venenous and large reptiles that live in America, from Southern Canada to Northern Argentina. They are easily recognizable by the characteristic rattle on the tip of the tail. They could measure 2,9 meters long and weigh 9 kg. His head is rather flat and is clearly distinguishable from the neck. The center of the body is surrounded by scales that are arranged in 21 to 29 rows. The background color of this reptiles go from yellowish to greenish, reddish brown and even black colours. In dangerous situations these snakes are often twin and put the neck in an "S" form to attack faster. Their tails emits a warning sound. The poison of these animals is very strong. It destroys red blood cells and blood vessels to penetrate. That affects the body tissues and circulation. Their bites are extremely painful and can be fatal to a human. Most of these snakes beats you if you try to hunt them. They are carnivores and they feed on eggs and mouses.

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The bisons live in the Grait Planes of the United States, Canada and Mexico. They are herbivore mammals that feed on moss, leaves and branches.
The female bisons are smaller than the male ones. They have a hight, long and narrow necks, their body is very wide but their have short, thin legs.
Males can weigh over 900 kg and can measure between 150 and 180 cm long. The female bisons give birth to only one calve per pregnancy and take care of it until it is sufficiently robust. Bisonts are excelent swimmers in the water showing the same strength and endurance that characterizes in all his actions. The North American Indian depended on the bison for food, clothing and shelter, and in the treeless plains, dry droppings used as fuel.

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Bisonte_%20SuperStock_%20Inc.jpg


The rehas are the biggest birds of America. Males measure 150 cm long and females 120 cm long. They weigh between 30 to 35 kg. They have feathers with an ash-gray color, long neck and wings, tail atrophied. Their appearance is similar to African rheas, which is distinguished by have three toes on each foot, to be more small and to have a fine plumage. Although rheas are fast runners, they cannot fly. They usually live in groups of up to 30 individuals. The males build a nest in which females lay their eggs, this behaviour is called polyandry. Males are also responsible for incubating the eggs. They are omnivore animals that feed on seeds, grains, fruits, insects, amphibians, reptiles, small mammals and bird chicks. Some time ago, people used rhea´s feathers to make dusters.

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f2.jpg


Other animals

4. Diseases :




During the American conquest , there was a collapse of the indigenous population between the years 1492 and 1620 . The arrival of Europeans led to the entrance to America of a lot of dangerous diseases for which native people had no biological defenses . The American researcher H. F. Dobyns has estimated that 95% of the total populationof America died in the first 130 years after Columbus' arrival.
The navigators said the amount of people that lived in America , in the arrival of the conquistadors . There wasn't a great population in America , but it's true that in the first century , after the American conquest ,the percentage of population decreased a lot . It is probably the worst demographic disaster in history .

Diseases carried from Europe to America .
Diseases carried from America to Europe .